The Wikipedia puts an explanation of Standard based assessment this way.
"In an educational setting, standards-based assessment is assessment that relies on the evaluation of student understanding with respect to agreed-upon standards, also known as "outcomes". The standards set the criteria for the successful demonstration of the understanding of a concept or skill".
Standard based Assessment consist of three components.
1. Assessment of Learning (AoL)
Berry (2008, p. 32) points out that “assessment of learning is mostly used for making summative judgment of students’ performances.” In addition, the author stresses that AoL is used to compare student’s performance against goals and standards or each other (Berry, 2008). In other words, AoL takes place at the end of the course and is mainly concentrating on the product of learning.
In PNG context, the national examinations in grades 8, 10 and 12 are classical examples of AoL.
The results of the examinations are used to select students to the next level of education based on their performances. The grade 8 students receive Basic Education Certificate, grade 10 students receive Lower Secondary School Certificate and grade 12 students receive Upper Secondary School Certificate. The certificates are awarded to students to confirm that they have completed the nationally prescribed subjects in the appropriate grades. In other words the national examinations in PNG have two main functions: for certification and for selection to the next level of education